Product Description
For almost all measuring cells, we offer Pseudo-Reference Electrodes based on metal wires. The table below gives an overview of all available materials and of the compatibility with the measuring cells.
If a true reference electrode is required, capillary-based Microreference electrodes can be chosen instead (currently NOT available!). They are compatible with most measuring cells and are available with different cell chemistry, that can be adopted to your specific requirements. For example, we offer aqueous Ag/AgCl electrodes but also AgTFSI/EMImTFSI (ionic liquid based) systems.
Next to the capillary-based microreference electrodes, a refillable reference electrode is available. The electrode contains a wire (i.e. Ag/AgCl) with outside contact, and a frit for contact with the outer electrolyte and can be filled with the inner electrolyte of choice (i.e. aqueous KCl). Tightening the wire fitting then seals the electrode.
Product Details
Article No.:
MicroPseudo MicroReference
not available
Electrode? Pt / Ag / custom Ag / custom Pt / Ag / custom
Electrolyte? fillable by customer
Electrolyte composition?
  • Aqueous (KCl/custom)
  • Organic (carbonates / acetonitrile / dimethylsulfoxide / custom)
  • Ionic liquids
fillable by customer
Tip diameter? 0.5 mm 0.8 mm 4 mm

Please note:

Unfortunately, only the manually refillable microreference electrode and the pseudo-reference are currently available.
The capillary-based microreference electrodes are currently NOT available.

Electrochemical experiments can be performed using either a 2-, 3- or 4-electrode setup. Except for the case of a 2-electrode configuration at least one (in the ideal case currentless) reference electrode is required. However, a miniaturization of the measuring cells is considerably demanding for the design of the reference electrode. In case of nonaqueous systems, there are even further challenges.

rhd instruments offers a number of different (non)aqueous micro-reference electrodes based on capillaries encased by PEEK or polyimide. Amongst others, they are available for:

  • aqueous solutions
  • ionic liquids
  • DMSO based electrolytes
  • organic carbonates (e.g. battery electrolytes)

We are also happy to develop an individual reference electrode for your system together with you - please feel free to contact us.

All these reference electrodes are delivered with a suitable storage container filled with the internal electrolyte of the reference electrode. It is suitable for regeneration after cleaning as well as for long-term storage.

If appropriate handled and properly stored potential stability of at least 2 months should be given. In case of nonaqueous micro-reference electrodes we recommend a calibration of the potential to the half-wave potential of the ferrocene redox peaks.

Besides "real" reference electrodes we also offer you so called pseudo-reference electrodes consisting of silver or platinum wire. The following table gives an overview of available materials and the compatibility with different cell types.

Micro-reference electrodes have for instance been used for the following applications:
  • Impedance spectroscopy studies of the structure and dynamics of the electrochemical double layer between metal electrodes and ionic liquids with potential and temperature control
  • Determination of the stability window of ionic liquids and carbonate based battery electrolytes using cyclic voltammetry
  • Cyclic voltammetry studies of solutions of organic dyes in acetonitrile and dichloromethane for determination of the HOMO-LUMO gap
Please also visit our Literature section for a list of publications!
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